Kaz Psychic - Ludwig Wittgenstein - "Tractatus-Logico-Philosophicus"

 

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Ludwig Wittgenstein was a German-Austrian born phisopsopher

 

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Kaz Psychic - Ludwig Wittgenstein -"Tractatus Logico-Phisosophicus"


The Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (Latin for "Logical Philosophical Treatise"), is the only book-length philosophical work published (Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein) by the German-Austrian born philosopher, Ludwig Wittegenstein, in his lifetime. 

 

Ludwig Wittgenstein German-Austrian born Philosopher

Ludwig Wittgenstein

 

The Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (Latin for "Logical Philosophical Treatise"), is the only book-length philosophical work published (Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein) by the German-Austrian born philosopher, Ludwig Wittegenstein, in his lifetime. It was an ambitious project - to identify the relationship between language and reality as well as to define the limits of science; and is recognized as a significant philosophical work of the twentieth century.

 

Logic

Ludwig Wittgenstein (26th April 1889 - 29th April 1951) worked primarily with logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind and the philosophy of language.

 

University of Cambridge

From 1929 - 1947, Ludwig Wittgenstein taught at the University of Cambridge

 

Ludwig Wittgenstgein Tractatus Logico-philosphicus Book Cover

Ludwig Wittgenstgein Tractatus Logico-philosphicus

(Click on the image above to read this wonderful book in PDF format)

 

Edited posthumously

The Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, was just one slim, 75 page book (1921), beside which Ludwig Wittgenstein wrote one article, one book review and one children's dictionary.

 

His voluminous manuscripts were edited and published posthumously.

 

Completion of the Tractatus

In the summer of 1918 Wittgenstein took military leave and went to stay in one of his family's Vienna summer houses, Neuwaldegg. It was there in August 1918 that he completed the Tractatus, which he submitted with the title Der Satz (German: proposition, sentence, phrase, set, but also "leap") to the publishers Jahoda and Siegel.

 

A series of events around this time left him deeply upset. On 13 August, his uncle Paul died. On 25 October, he learned that Jahoda and Siegel had decided not to publish the Tractatus, and on 27 October, his brother Kurt killed himself, the third of his brothers to commit suicide. It was around this time he received a letter from David Pinsent's mother to say that Pinsent had been killed in a plane crash on 8 May.

 

Suicidal

Wittgenstein was distraught to the point of being suicidal. He was sent back to the Italian front after his leave and, as a result of the defeat of the Austrian army, was captured by Allied forces on 3 November in Trentino. He subsequently spent nine months in an Italian prisoner of war camp.

 

Returned to Vienna

He returned to his family in Vienna on 25 August 1919, by all accounts physically and mentally spent.

 

He apparently talked incessantly about suicide, terrifying his sisters and brother Paul.

 

Teacher training

He decided to do two things: to en-roll in teacher training college as an elementary school teacher, and to get rid of his fortune. In 1914, it had been providing him with an income of 300,000 Kronen a year, but by 1919 was worth a great deal more, with a sizeable portfolio of investments in the United States and the Netherlands.

 

He divided it among his siblings, except for Margarete, insisting that it not be held in trust for him. His family saw him as ill, and acquiesced.

 

Important modern classic

Philosophical Investigations appeared as a book in 1953 and by the end of the century it was considered an important modern classic.

 

Bertrand Russell

Philosopher Bertrand Russell described Ludwig Wittegenstein as 'the most perfect example I have ever known of a genius as traditionally conceived; passionate, profound, intense and dominating".

 

Born into Wealth

Ludwig Wittgenstein was born in Vienna into one of Europe's richest families, he inherited a large fortune from his father in 1913. He gave some considerable sums to poor artists.

 

Sibling suicides

In a period of severe depression after the first World War, Ludwig Wittegenstein then gave away his entire fortune to his brothers and sisters. Three of his brothers committed suicide with Ludwig Wittegenstein contemplating it too.

 

Officer of World War 1 on the front line

Ludwig Wittgenstein left academia several times, serving as an officer on the front line in World War 1, where he was decorated a number of times for his courage; teaching in schools in remote Austrian villages, where he encountered controversy for hitting children when they made mistakes in mathematics; and working during World War ll as a hospital porter in London, where he had told patients not to take the drugs they were prescribed, and where he largely managed to keep secret, the fact that he was once one of the world's most famous philosophers. He described Philosophy, however, as "the only work that gave me real satisfaction".

 

Wittgenstein Periods

Ludwig Wittgenstein's philosophy is often divided up into an early period, exemplified by the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (often simply called 'Tractatus'), and a later period articulated in the Philosophical Investigations.

 

Propostions and the world

The early Wittgenstein was concerned with the logical relationship between propositions and the world, and believed that by providing an account of the logic underlying this relationship that he had solved all philosophical problems.

 

Language game

The later Wittgenstein rejected many of the assumptions of the 'Tractatus', arguing that the meaning of words is best understood as their use within a given 'language game'.

 

Humanities, Social Sciences and George Henrik von Wright

Ludwig Wittegenstein's influence has been felt in nearly every field of the humanities and social sciences, yet there are diverging interpretations of his thought. In the words of his friend and colleague, George Henrik von Wright, "He was of the opinion....that his ideas were generally misunderstood and distorted even by those who professed to be his disciples. He doubted he would be better understood in the future. He once said he felt as though he were writing for people who would think in a different way, breathe a different air of life, from that of present-day-men".

 

Intense contemplative thought

The Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, is a very compelling and addictive read, which provides phenomenal stimulation of philosophical thought and reasoning. It provokes intense and contemplative thought.

 

Philosophical statements

As you will read from viewing the PDF of the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus by Ludwig Wittgenstein, he starts his book with a series of philosophical statements which read:

 

1* The world is all that is the case.
1.1 The world is the totality of facts, not of things.
1.11 The world is determined by the facts, and by their being
all the facts.
1.12 For the totality of facts determines what is the case, and
also whatever is not the case.
1.13 The facts in logical space are the world.
1.2 The world divides into facts.
1.21 Each item can be the case or not the case while everything
else remains the same.
2 What is the case—a fact—is the existence of states of
affairs.
2.01 A state of affairs (a state of things) is a combination of
objects (things).

2.011 It is essential to things that they should be possible
constituents of states of affairs.
2.012 In logic nothing is accidental: if a thing can occur in a
state of affairs, the possibility of the state of affairs must
be written into the thing itself.
2.0121 It would seem to be a sort of accident, if it turned out
that a situation would fit a thing that could already exist
entirely on its own.
If things can occur in states of affairs, this possibility
must be in them from the beginning.
(Nothing in the province of logic can be merely
possible. Logic deals with every possibility and all
possibilities are its facts.)
Just as we are quite unable to imagine spatial objects
outside space or temporal objects outside time, so too
there is no object that we can imagine excluded from the
possibility of combining with others.
If I can imagine objects combined in states of affairs, I
cannot imagine them excluded from the possibility of
such combinations.
2.0122 Things are independent in so far as they can occur in all
possible situations, but this form of independence is a
form of connexion with states of affairs, a form of
dependence. (It is impossible for words to appear in two
different rôles: by themselves, and in propositions.)
2.0123 If I know an object I also know all its possible occurrences
in states of affairs.
(Every one of these possibilities must be part of the
nature of the object.)
A new possibility cannot be discovered later.
2.01231 If I am to know an object, though I need not know its
external properties, I must know all its internal
properties.

The ending statement in the Tractatus, reads...

7 What we cannot speak about we must pass over in
silence.

 

Note: 


* The decimal numbers assigned to the individual propositions indicate the logical
importance of the propositions, the stress laid on them in my exposition. The
propositions n.1, n.2, n.3, etc. are comments on proposition no. n; the propositions
n.m1, n.m2, etc. are comments on proposition no. n.m; and so on).

 

Mathematical calculus

In between this the numbered philosophical statements become a series of mathematical calculus, to argue the philosophical statements and their priority in 'reality' and 'logic'!

 

"The world is all - that is the case"

But the fact that he starts this compelling read by saying:

 

1* The world is all that is the case.

 

And then by point 2.012 states:

 

2.012 In logic nothing is accidental: if a thing can occur in a
state of affairs, the possibility of the state of affairs must
be written into the thing itself.

 

and then ending with:

 

"What we cannot speak about, we must pass over in silence"

7 What we cannot speak about we must pass over in silence

 

Argumentative contemplation

Sure provokes some serious and argumentative contemplation. So lets take the statement that goes:

 

In logic, nothing is an accident...

2.012 In logic nothing is accidental: if a thing can occur in astate of affairs, the possibility of the state of affairs mustbe written into the thing itself.

 

Already written into the state of affairs to begin with

If there is no such thing as an accident, because the likelihood of it occurring because it was already written into a state of affairs in the first place, then we could not then, assume that two cars colliding at a crossroads or set of traffic lights, despite the colour changing sequence of them, is an accident! So would it then, for the sake of Wittegenstein's logistics, have to be categorized as a "Road Traffic Event" (RTE) as opposed to a "Road Traffic Accident" (RTA)?!

 

Meeting someone like a soul mate in an apparently chance or 'accidental' way, would not be an 'accident' then in the true sense of the word!

 

Fatalistic

So from a religious viewpoint by way of a more 'fatalistic' leaning, we might conclude that the event was 'pre-ordained'!

 

Totality of the state of affairs

So in either event, the "World is all, that is the case", because of the totality of a state of affairs which already existed!

 

Are you now understanding why this amazing book is a compelling read?!

 

And if the last statement in the Tractatus reads:

 

7 What we cannot speak about we must pass over in silence.

 

Then this has to be Wittegenstein saying "If you cannot agree with my logistics, remain silent, provoking more deep and intense contemplation!

 

Provocative statement

Take another provocative statement in the Tractatus, which reads:

 

6.52 We feel that even when all possible scientific questions have been answered, the problems of life remain completely untouched.

 

Of course there are then no questions left, and this itself is the answer.

 

Try contemplating this statement when you have become totally chilled out after drinking some fine wines!

 

Science or life

And yet in this (6.52) statement, Wittgenstein invites us to ponder on the possibility that no matter how much science assumes to offer us solutions to man's questions, that life itself will continue to challenge us, until we have no more questions to ask of science or life itself perhaps?

 

'The facts in logical space are the world'

1.13 The facts in logical space are the world.

 

In this statement Wittgenstein sums up the world as a logical space full of facts, well so it might be assumed by some readers, but not perhaps others! Hence the contemplative and argumentative nature of philosophy provides considerable stimulus for all, and hopefully healthy debate.

 

What lies ahead?

As a psychic and remote viewer, I am asked more often than not, by clients, "What Lies Ahead"? Will I definitely meet Mr/Mrs Right on a date I may have given them in the not too distant future.

 

My mind often casts back to having read the Tractatus, when I am put in a position where an answer is required, because if nothing is an accident and therefore everything is possibly pre-ordained the probability of someone meeting their Mr/Mrs Right may or may not already be there, but if not, and we meet a soul mate by chance, outside of and independent of any set of pre-ordained state of affairs, we might miss that one opportunity to meet that Mr/Mrs Right, just by deciding not to go to a given or planned location on any given day, changing our mind or out plans at the last minute, but on the other hand you might conclude that in changing your mind about going to that same fatal location, you would then possibly place yourself in a different location where you were destined to meet that Mr or Mrs Right anyway! How mind bending a thought is that?!

 

Mental knots

Does philosophy tie you up in mental knots? Mmmmm perhaps so!

 

Philosophy steers you to think intensely and to explore new horizons of logic.

 

This is why the Tractatus makes for a compelling read, because it invites you into far deeper logistical contemplation and bends your mind to such an extent that your viewpoint on life and in logic will never be the same again.

 

Karma

Karma is a wonderful concept and metaphysically speaking, the vehicle which will take you on a wondrous journey of deep thinking, toward a much better and deeper understanding of not only life, and how amazing it can be in the right frame of mind, but in the laws of karma in relation to logic.

 

Mind gymnasium

Philosophy is a sort of metaphysics for the mind, a mind Gymnasium!

 

4.112 Philosophy aims at the logical clarification of thoughts.
Philosophy is not a body of doctrine but an activity.
A philosophical work consists essentially of elucidations.

 

Clarification of propositions

Philosophy does not result in ‘philosophical propositions’, but rather in the clarification of propositions.

 

Sharp boundaries

Without philosophy thoughts are, as it were, cloudy and indistinct: its task is to make them clear and to give them sharp boundaries.

 

In the above statement Wittgenstein nicely sums up the concept of philosophy.

 

Mind bending

The mind bending nature of the Tractatus also propels you into taking little for granted and to examine the reason in logistical terms, why events occur and what vehicle they are providing you with to propel you forward and why!

 

George Henrik von Wright quote

You take one philosophical statement and it leads you to another and on to another with you compelled to read on to see what the end of the line of thought will offer, often with the unexpected twist of you drawing from the experience a totally different conclusion to that of others, hence in the words of Wittgenstein's friend and colleague, George Henrik von Wright, Wittgenstein was quoted as saying:

 

"He was of the opinion....that his ideas were generally misunderstood and distorted even by those who professed to be his disciples. He doubted he would be better understood in the future. He once said he felt as though he were writing for people who would think in a different way, breathe a different air of life, from that of present-day-men".

 

In short a writer of philosophical works may well be writing something which is then open to the interpretation of each and every individual, as opposed to writing a one for all series of philosophical statements.

 

For the 'individual'

Perhaps then a writer of philosophy writes very much for the 'individual' as opposed to the masses who, all the same, read their work! Not isn't that another mind bending thought?!

 

Gutenberg Version of the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus

There have been several versions published, of the 'Tractatus' each differing in the interpretation of the reviewer, just to add to the complexity of this amazing historical work.

Here is another version of the same book:

 

Click on the image below to view the 'Gutenberg' Version of the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus

 

Ludwig Wittgenstgein Tractatus Logico-philosphicus Book Cover -Guttenberge version

Click on the above image to view 
the 'Gutenberg' Version of the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus

 

Differing statements

Differing from the above version the same numbered statements now read:

 

1 The world is everything that is the case.
1.1 The world is the totality of facts, not of things.
1.11 The world is determined by the facts, and by these being all the
facts.
1.12 For the totality of facts determines both what is the case, and
also all that is not the case.
1.13 The facts in logical space are the world.
1.2 The world divides into facts.
1.21 Any one can either be the case or not be the case, and everything
else remain the same.
2 What is the case, the fact, is the existence of atomic facts.
2.01 An atomic fact is a combination of objects (entities, things).
2.011 It is essential to a thing that it can be a constituent part of an
atomic fact.
2.012 In logic nothing is accidental: if a thing can occur in an atomic
fact the possibility of that atomic fact must already be prejudged
in the thing.
2.0121 It would, so to speak, appear as an accident, when to a thing
that could exist alone on its own account, subsequently a state
of affairs could be made to fit.
If things can occur in atomic facts, this possibility must already
lie in them.
(A logical entity cannot be merely possible. Logic treats of
every possibility, and all possibilities are its facts.)
Just as we cannot think of spatial objects at all apart from
space, or temporal objects apart from time, so we cannot think
of any object apart from the possibility of its connexion with
other things.
If I can think of an object in the context of an atomic fact,
I cannot think of it apart from the possibility of this context.
2.0122 The thing is independent, in so far as it can occur in all possible
circumstances, but this form of independence is a form of
connexion with the atomic fact, a form of dependence. (It is
impossible for words to occur in two different ways, alone and
in the proposition.)
2.0123 If I know an object, then I also know all the possibilities of its
occurrence in atomic facts.
(Every such possibility must lie in the nature of the object.)
A new possibility cannot subsequently be found.
2.01231 In order to know an object, I must know not its external but all
its internal qualities.

Whereof one cannot speak, thereof one must be silent.

6.52 We feel that even if all possible scientific questions be answered,
the problems of life have still not been touched at all. Of course
there is then no question left, and just this is the answer.

 

Atomic

Note: the phraseology is different. The use of the word 'atomic' is used, and the ending statement reads differently but effectively says the same!

 

Ambiance

Yes, we have two reviewers in action perhaps differing in their translation of Wittgenstein's original German language version which is contained in the Gutenberg version (beneath the English version). But the slant and ambiance is also different in some ways too, which may lead to a differing conclusion of the Tractatus, adding to its mind bending nature and fascination!

 

Of course the influences of others we all encounter in our lives, also shapes out view of the world and in turn our philosophical stance too.

 

OttoWeininger spring 1903

Otto Weininger Spring 1903

 

The Influence of Otto Weininger

Ludwig Wittgenstein was influenced by Otto Weininger - Austrian philosopher Otto Weininger (1880–1903)

 

Platonic forms

While a student at the Realschule, Wittgenstein was influenced by Austrian philosopher Otto Weininger's 1903 book Geschlecht und Charakter (Sex and Character). Weininger (1880–1903), who was also Jewish, argued that the concepts male and female exist only as Platonic forms, and that Jews tend to embody the platonic femininity. Whereas men are basically rational, women operate only at the level of their emotions and sexual organs.

 

Love and sexuality

Jews, Weininger argued, are similar, saturated with femininity, with no sense of right and wrong, and no soul. Weininger argues that man must choose between his masculine and feminine sides, consciousness and unconsciousness, Platonic love and sexuality.

 

Doomed to misery and immorality

Love and sexual desire stand in contradiction, and love between a woman and a man is therefore doomed to misery or immorality. The only life worth living is the spiritual one—to live as a woman or a Jew means one has no right to live at all; the choice is genius or death.

 

Weininger suicide

Weininger committed suicide, shooting himself in 1903, shortly after publishing the book.

 

Many years later, as a professor at Cambridge, Wittgenstein distributed copies of Weininger's book to his bemused academic colleagues.

 

He said that Weininger's arguments were wrong, but that it was the way in which they were wrong that was interesting.

 

Cambridge Moral Sciences Club and Apostles

In 1912 Wittgenstein joined the Cambridge Moral Sciences Club, an influential discussion group for philosophy dons and students, delivering his first paper there on 29th November that year, a four-minute talk defining philosophy as "all those primitive propositions which are assumed as true without proof by the various sciences.

 

"He dominated the society and stopped attending entirely in the early 1930s after complaints that he gave no one else a chance to speak.


The club became infamous within popular philosophy because of a meeting on 25 October 1946 at Richard Braithwaite's rooms in King's, where Karl Popper, another Viennese philosopher, had been invited as the guest speaker.

 

Popper's paper was "Are there philosophical problems?", in which he struck up a position against Wittgenstein's, contending that problems in philosophy are real, not just linguistic puzzles as Wittgenstein argued.

 

Accounts vary as to what happened next, but Wittgenstein apparently started waving a hot poker, demanding that Popper give him an example of a moral rule.

 

Popper offered one—"Not to threaten visiting speakers with pokers"—at which point Russell told Wittgenstein he had misunderstood and Wittgenstein left. Popper maintained that Wittgenstein 'stormed out', but it had become accepted practice for him to leave early (because of his aforementioned ability to dominate discussion). It was the only time the philosophers, three of the most eminent in the world, were ever in the same room together. The minutes record that the meeting was "charged to an unusual degree with a spirit of controversy".

 

Bertrand Russell in 1907

Bertrand Russell in 1907

 

Bertrand Russell

John Maynard Keynes also invited him to join the Cambridge Apostles, an elite secret society formed in 1820, which both Russell and G. E. Moore had joined as students, but Wittgenstein did not enjoy it and attended infrequently.

 

In love with one another!

Russell had been worried that Wittgenstein would not appreciate the group's unseriousness, style of humour, or the fact that the members were in love with one another.

 

Hearth rug

He was admitted in 1912 but resigned almost immediately because he could not tolerate the level of the discussion on the Hearth Rug; they took him back though in the 1920s when he returned to Cambridge. (He also had trouble tolerating the discussions in the Moral Sciences Club).

 

The Vienna Circle

The Vienna Circle

 

The Vienna Circle

The Tractatus was now the subject of much debate amongst philosophers, and Wittgenstein was a figure of increasing international fame. In particular, a discussion group of philosophers, scientists and mathematicians, known as the Vienna Circle, had built up largely as a result of the inspiration they had been given by reading the Tractatus. From 1926, with the members of the Vienna Circle, Wittgenstein would take part in many discussions.

 

Poetry

However, during these discussions, it soon became evident that Wittgenstein held a different attitude towards philosophy than the members of the Circle whom his work had inspired. For example, during meetings of the Vienna Circle, he would express his disagreement with the group's misreading of his work by turning his back to them and reading poetry aloud.

 

Rudolf Carnap

In his autobiography, Rudolf Carnap describes Wittgenstein as the thinker who gave him the greatest inspiration. However, he also wrote that "there was a striking difference between Wittgenstein's attitude toward philosophical problems and that of Schlick and myself.

Our attitude toward philosophical problems was not very different from that which scientists have toward their problems." As for Wittgenstein:

 

Prophet or seer

His point of view and his attitude toward people and problems, even theoretical problems, were much more similar to those of a creative artist than to those of a scientist; one might almost say, similar to those of a religious prophet or a seer...

 

Divine inspiration

When finally, sometimes after a prolonged arduous effort, his answers came forth, his statement stood before us like a newly created piece of art or a divine revelation...the impression he made on us was as if insight came to him as through divine inspiration, so that we could not help feeling that any sober rational comment of analysis of it would be a profanation.

 

1947–1951: Final years

"Death is not an event in life: we do not live to experience death. If we take eternity to mean not infinite temporal duration but timelessness, then eternal life belongs to those who live in the present.

 

Our life has no end in the way in which our visual field has no limits

Our life has no end in the way in which our visual field has no limits." — Wittgenstein, Tractatus, 6.431.

 

The plaque at Storey's End, 76 Storey's Way, Cambridge, where Wittgenstein died
The plaque at Storey's End, 76 Storey's Way, Cambridge, where Wittgenstein died


Death

Wittgenstein began work on his final manuscript, MS 177, on 25 April 1951. It was his 62nd birthday on 26 April. He went for a walk the next afternoon, and wrote his last entry that day, 27 April.

That evening, he became very ill; when his doctor told him he might live only a few days, he reportedly replied, "Good!"

 

"Strangely moving utterance"

Joan stayed with him throughout that night, and just before losing consciousness for the last time on 28 April, he told her: "Tell them I've had a wonderful life". Norman Malcolm describes this as a "strangely moving utterance".

 

Catholics

Four of Wittgenstein's former students arrived at his bedside—Ben Richards, Elizabeth Anscombe, Yorick Smythies, and Maurice O'Connor Drury. Anscombe and Smythies were Catholics; and, at the latter's request, a Dominican friar, Father Conrad Pepler, also attended.

They were at first unsure what Wittgenstein would have wanted, but then remembered he had said he hoped his Catholic friends would pray for him, so they did, and he was pronounced dead shortly afterwards.

 

Catholic burial

Wittgenstein was given a Catholic burial at Parish of the Ascension Burial Ground in Cambridge. Drury later said he had been troubled ever since about whether that was the right thing to do.

 

Norman Malcolm

On his religious views, Wittgenstein was said to be greatly interested in Catholicism and was sympathetic to it.

However, he did not consider himself to be a Catholic.

 

Way of life

According to Norman Malcolm, Wittgenstein saw Catholicism to be more a way of life rather than as a set of beliefs which he personally held, considering that he did not accept any religious faith.

 

Agnostic

Wittgenstein was said to be agnostic, in a qualified sense, in the last years of his life.

 

Illustration of a duckrabbit, discussed in the Philosophical Investigations, section XI, part II

Illustration of a 'duck rabbit', discussed in the

Philosophical Investigations, section XI

 

1953: Publication of the Philosophical Investigations

Main articles: Philosophical Investigations, Language-game and Private language argument

 

Duckrabbit

Illustration of a "duck rabbit", discussed in the Philosophical Investigations, section XI, part II

 

Blue book

The Blue Book, a set of notes dictated to his class at Cambridge in 1933–1934, contains the seeds of Wittgenstein's later thoughts on language, and is widely read as a turning-point in his philosophy of language.

Philosophical Investigations was published in two parts in 1953.

 

Most of Part I was ready for printing in 1946, but Wittgenstein withdrew the manuscript from his publisher.

 

Anscombe and Rhees

The shorter Part II was added by his editors, Elizabeth Anscombe and Rush Rhees.

 

"Language gone on holiday".

Wittgenstein asks the reader to think of language as a multiplicity of language-games within which parts of language develop and function. He argues that philosophical problems are bewitchments that arise from philosophers' misguided attempts to consider the meaning of words independently of their context, usage, and grammar, what he called "language gone on holiday".

 

Metaphysical environment

According to Wittgenstein, philosophical problems arise when language is forced from its proper home into a metaphysical environment, where all the familiar and necessary landmarks and contextual clues are removed.

 

Frictionless ice

He describes this metaphysical environment as like being on frictionless ice: where the conditions are apparently perfect for a philosophically and logically perfect language, all philosophical problems can be solved without the muddying effects of everyday contexts; but where, precisely because of the lack of friction, language can in fact do no work at all.

 

Wittgenstein argues that philosophers must leave the frictionless ice and return to the "rough ground" of ordinary language in use. Much of the Investigations consists of examples of how the first false steps can be avoided, so that philosophical problems are dissolved, rather than solved: "the clarity we are aiming at is indeed complete clarity. But this simply means that the philosophical problems should completely disappear."

 

Ludwig Wittgenstein's Legacy

Wittgenstein left a voluminous archive of unpublished papers, including 83 manuscripts, 46 typescripts and 11 dictations, amounting to an estimated 20,000 pages. Choosing among repeated drafts, revisions, corrections and lose notes editorial work has found nearly one third of the total suitable for print.

 

University of Bergen

An Internet facility hosted at the University of Bergen allows to access images of almost all the material and to search the available transcriptions. In 2011 two new boxes of Wittgenstein papers were found.

Philosophical Investigations were the only nearly finished project and the book was published in 1953.

 

"The one crossover masterpiece in twentieth-century philosophy, appealing across diverse specializations and philosophical orientations".

In 1999, a survey among American university and college teachers ranked the Investigations as the most important book of 20th-century philosophy, standing out as "the one crossover masterpiece in twentieth-century philosophy, appealing across diverse specializations and philosophical orientations".

 

Ranked 54th on a list of most influential twentieth-century works in cognitive science

The Investigations also ranked 54th on a list of most influential twentieth-century works in cognitive science by the University of Minnesota's Center for Cognitive Sciences.

 

Peter Hacker

Peter Hacker argues that Wittgenstein's influence on 20th century analytic philosophy can be attributed to his early influence on the Vienna Circle and later influence on the Oxford 'ordinary language' school and Cambridge philosophers.

 

Kaz's final words -The Tractatus is all - That is the case!

The Tractatus is all - That is the case!

 

I hope you have enjoyed a stimulating, inspiring and thought provoking read.

 

Thanks for reading. Wittgenstein is one of my all time favourite philosophers and the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus is one of my favourite books.

 

Bright positive blessings,

Kaz xx

 

As an extra treat Kaz offers ....

 

A FREE gift just for you!

 

You will receive a valuable FREE gift with EVERY psychic reading or commission of specialist services which you commission Kaz to undertake.

 

Go HERE to read about the valuable FREE gifts on offer.

 

Call Kaz now for the reading of your life! Kaz promises you that you will be so glad you did!

 

01704 822 919 | +44 1704 822 919


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