Kaz Psychic Parallel Universe - Fact? Fiction?


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This thought provoking article by Kaz addresses the issue of whether the existence of a parallel universe is fact or merely fiction.


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Kaz Psychic - Parallel Universe - Fact? Fiction?

Parallel Universe - Fact Fiction bny Kaz Psychic



Have you ever wondered if our lives are on a parallel with another universe?

Parallel universe, 'meta-universe' and 'multiverse' are one and the same. (Meta meaning 'after' or 'beyond').


The multiverse (or meta-universe) is the hypothetical (one may argue 'reality' as opposed to 'hypothetical') set of infinite or finite possible universes (including the historical universe we consistently experience - via regression being one means of access) that together comprise everything that exists and can exist: the entirety of space, time, matter, and energy as well as the physical laws and constants that describe them.


The various universes within the multiverse are sometimes called parallel universes.


Ingo Swann - Remote Viewer and researcher into Parallel Universes

The late Ingo Swann - Remote Viewer - Author of "Penetration"


So many people these days are experiencing the phenomenon of parallel universes, quantum jumping, feeling as if they are in two places at the same time or even coexisting in two places at the same time, some via orbital shift experiences, others as a result of claimed alien abduction, and some via OBES (out of body experiences). State Specific Science has produced very interesting findings with regard to this phenomena. Whilst some famous remote viewers have has some first hand experience of it, Ingo Swann being the most notable, from his work in remote viewing other planets, writing a book called "Penetration", which makes very mind blowing reading.


Click on the Ingo Swann - "Penetration" book cover to read the PDF of this amazing publication:


Ingo Swann - Penetration - A strudy of the potential for Parallel Universes



Ingo Swann - Penetration - The Question of Extraterrestrial and Human Telepathy


The structure of the multiverse, the nature of each universe within it and the relationships among the various constituent universes, depend on the specific multiverse hypothesis/realities considered.


Multiple universes have been hypothesized in cosmology, physics, astronomy, religion, philosophy, transpersonal psychology and fiction, particularly in science fiction and fantasy.


Transpersonal psychology is a school of psychology that integrates the spiritual and transcendent aspects of the human experience with the framework of modern psychology. It is also possible to define it as a "spiritual psychology". The Transpersonal has been defined as "experiences in which the sense of identity or self extends beyond (trans) the individual or personal to encompass wider aspects of humankind, life, psyche or cosmos"

In these contexts, parallel universes are also called "alternative universes", "quantum universes", "interpenetrating dimensions", "parallel dimensions", "parallel worlds", "alternative realities", "alternative time lines", and "dimensional planes," among others. Hence some people's experiences of 'quantum jumping'.


The term 'multiverse' was coined in 1895 by the American philosopher and psychologist William James in a different context.


Multiverse hypotheses in physics
There are many categories of this:

Max Tegmark and Brian Greene have devised classification schemes that categorize the various theoretical types of multiverse, or types of universe that might theoretically comprise a multiverse ensemble.


Max Tegmark - Author of "Our Mathematical Universe" - My Quest for the Ultimate Nature of Reality

Max Tegmark - Cosmologist


Max Tegmark's four levels
Cosmologist Max Tegmark has provided a taxonomy of universes beyond the familiar observable universe. The levels according to Tegmark's classification are arranged such that subsequent levels can be understood to encompass and expand upon previous levels, and they are briefly described below.


Taxonomy is the practice and science of classification. The word is also used as a count noun: a taxonomy, or taxonomic scheme, is a particular classification. The word finds its roots in the Greek τάξις, taxis (meaning 'order', 'arrangement') and νόμος, nomos ('law' or 'science'). Originally taxonomy referred only to the classifying of organisms or a particular classification of organisms. In a wider, more general sense, it may refer to a classification of things or concepts, as well as to the principles underlying such a classification. Taxonomy is different from meronomy which is dealing with the classification of parts of a whole.


Many taxonomies have a hierarchical structure, but this is not a requirement. Taxonomy uses taxonomic units, known as taxa (singular taxon).

Level I: Beyond our cosmological horizon
A generic prediction of chaotic inflation is an infinite ergodic universe, which, being infinite, must contain Hubble volumes realizing all initial conditions.


The term "ergodic" was derived from the Greek words έργον (ergon: "work") and οδός (odos: "path" or "way"). It was chosen by Boltzmann while he was working on a problem in statistical mechanics.


Accordingly, an infinite universe will contain an infinite number of Hubble volumes, all having the same physical laws and physical constants. In regard to configurations such as the distribution of matter, almost all will differ from our Hubble volume. However, because there are infinitely many, far beyond the cosmological horizon, there will eventually be Hubble volumes with similar, and even identical, configurations. Tegmark estimates that an identical volume to ours should be about 1010115 meters away from us. Given infinite space, there would, in fact, be an infinite number of Hubble volumes identical to ours in the universe. This follows directly from the cosmological principle, wherein it is assumed our Hubble volume is not special or unique.


Multiverse level


"Bubble universes" every disk is a bubble universe (Universe 1 to Universe 6 are different bubbles;

they have physical constants that are different from our universe); our universe is just one of the bubbles.

Level II: Universes with different physical constants

"Bubble universes": every disk is a bubble universe (Universe 1 to Universe 6 are different bubbles; they have physical constants that are different from our universe); our universe is just one of the bubbles.


In the chaotic inflation theory, a variant of the cosmic inflation theory, the multiverse as a whole is stretching and will continue doing so forever, but some regions of space stop stretching and form distinct bubbles, like gas pockets in a loaf of rising bread. Such bubbles are embryonic level I multiverses. Linde and Vanchurin calculated the number of these universes to be on the scale of 101010,000,000.


Different bubbles may experience different spontaneous symmetry breaking resulting in different properties such as different physical constants.


Some physicists believe that the universe is spatially unbounded. The theory of relativity places a firm upper limit on the speed at which information can travel, effectively dividing this infinite space into "local" universes. Our observable universe, for example, is a sphere centered on the Earth (centered, that is, on whoever is doing the calculating), currently about 46.5 billion light years in radius, called the Hubble volume.


Overtly or not, physicists often use the idea of an Open Multiverse when evaluating theories. For example, Max Tegmark writes:

"Consider how cosmologists used the microwave background to rule out a finite spherical geometry. Hot and cold spots in microwave background maps have a characteristic size that depends on the curvature of space, and the observed spots appear too small to be consistent with a spherical shape. But it is important to be statistically rigorous. The average spot size varies randomly from one Hubble volume to another, so it is possible that our universe is fooling us – it could be spherical but happen to have abnormally small spots. When cosmologists say they have ruled out the spherical model with 99.9 percent confidence, they really mean that if this model were true, fewer than one in 1,000 Hubble volumes would show spots as small as those we observe".

Thus, there are an infinite number of regions of space the same size as our observable universe – an infinite number of observable universes, that is. This infinite set (which must contain, among other things, an infinite number of identical copies of you,4 the nearest of which is about 1029^29 m away, and an equally infinite number of not-quite-identical copies) comprises the level-I multiverse. By the Bekenstein bound there are only a finite number of configurations possible within any region, hence exact duplication is possible.


This level also includes John Archibald Wheeler's oscillatory universe theory and Lee Smolin's fecund universes theory.


Level III: Many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics
Hugh Everett's many-worlds interpretation (MWI) is one of several mainstream interpretations of quantum mechanics. In brief, one aspect of quantum mechanics is that certain observations cannot be predicted absolutely. Instead, there is a range of possible observations, each with a different probability.


According to the MWI, each of these possible observations corresponds to a different universe. Suppose a die is thrown that contains six sides and that the numeric result of the throw corresponds to a quantum mechanics observable. All six possible ways the die can fall correspond to six different universes.


Observable Universe with Measurements

The Hubble Volume - Observable Universe with Measurements


Tegmark argues that a level III multiverse does not contain more possibilities in the Hubble volume than a level I-II multiverse. In effect, all the different "worlds" created by "splits" in a level III multiverse with the same physical constants can be found in some Hubble volume in a level I multiverse. Tegmark writes that "The only difference between Level I and Level III is where your doppelgängers reside. In Level I they live elsewhere in good old three-dimensional space. In Level III they live on another quantum branch in infinite-dimensional Hilbert space." Similarly, all level II bubble universes with different physical constants can in effect be found as "worlds" created by "splits" at the moment of spontaneous symmetry breaking in a level III multiverse.


Related to the many-worlds idea are Richard Feynman's multiple histories interpretation and H. Dieter Zeh's many-minds interpretation.


In cosmology, a Hubble volume, or Hubble sphere, is a spherical region of the Universe surrounding an observer beyond which objects recede from that observer at a rate greater than the speed of light due to the expansion of the Universe.


The comoving radius of a Hubble sphere (known as the Hubble radius or the Hubble length) is c/H_0, where c is the speed of light and H_0 is the Hubble constant. The surface of a Hubble sphere is called the microphysical horizon, the Hubble surface, or the Hubble limit.


More generally, the term "Hubble volume" can be applied to any region of space with a volume of order (c/H_0)^3. However, the term is also frequently (but mistakenly) used as a synonym for the observable universe; the latter is larger than the Hubble volume.


Theory of Everything

Theory of Everything


Level IV: Ultimate ensemble
The ultimate ensemble or mathematical universe hypothesis is the hypothesis of Tegmark himself. This level considers equally real all universes that can be described by different mathematical structures. Tegmark writes that "abstract mathematics is so general that any Theory Of Everything (TOE) that is definable in purely formal terms (independent of vague human terminology) is also a mathematical structure. For instance, a TOE involving a set of different types of entities (denoted by words, say) and relations between them (denoted by additional words) is nothing but what mathematicians call a set-theoretical model, and one can generally find a formal system that it is a model of." He argues this "implies that any conceivable parallel universe theory can be described at Level IV" and "subsumes all other ensembles, therefore brings closure to the hierarchy of multiverses, and there cannot be say a Level V."


A theory of everything (ToE) or final theory, ultimate theory or master theory refers to the hypothetical presence of a single, all-encompassing, coherent theoretical framework of physics that fully explains and links together all physical aspects of the universe. ToE is one of the major unsolved problems in physics. Over the past few centuries, two theoretical frameworks have been developed that, as a whole, most closely resemble a ToE. The two theories upon which all modern physics rests are General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Mechanics (QM). GR is a theoretical framework that only focuses on the force of gravity for understanding the universe in regions of both large-scale and high-mass: stars, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, etc. On the other hand, QM is a theoretical framework that only focuses on three non-gravitational forces for understanding the universe in regions of both small scale and low mass: sub-atomic particles, atoms, molecules, etc. QM successfully implemented the Standard Model and unified the interactions (so-called grand unified theory) between the three non-gravitational forces: weak, strong and electromagnetic force.


Professor Juergen Schmidhuber

Professor Jürgen Schmidhuber is a computer scientist and artist

known for his work on machine learning, Artificial Intelligence, artificial neural networks, digital physics, and low-complexity art.


Jürgen Schmidhuber, however, says the "set of mathematical structures" is not even well-defined, and admits only universe representations describable by constructive mathematics, that is, computer programs. He explicitly includes universe representations describable by non-halting programs whose output bits converge after finite time, although the convergence time itself may not be predictable by a halting program, due to Kurt Gödel's limitations. He also explicitly discusses the more restricted ensemble of quickly computable universes.


Brian Greene String Theorist

Brian Greene String Theorist


Brian Greene's nine types
American theoretical physicist and string theorist Brian Greene discussed nine types of parallel universes:


The quilted multiverse works only in an infinite universe. With an infinite amount of space, every possible event will occur an infinite number of times. However, the speed of light prevents us from being aware of these other identical areas.

The "quilted multiverse" -- Greene's name for Davies' collection of "pocket universes".


The inflationary multiverse is composed of various pockets where inflation fields collapse and form new universes.


The "inflationary multiverse" -- Greene's name for the Guth-Linde collection of universes spawned in the inflation era of the very early universe.


Calabi-Yau-alternate String Theory

Calabi-Yau-alternate String Theory


The brane multiverse follows from M-theory and states that each universe is a 3-dimensional brane that exists with many others. Particles are bound to their respective branes except for gravity.


The "brane multiverse" -- a higher-dimensional expanse populated by other "branes" as defined in string theory.


In theoretical physics, a brane is a physical object that generalizes the notion of a point particle to higher dimensions. For example, a point particle can be viewed as a brane of dimension zero, while a string can be viewed as a brane of dimension one. It is also possible to consider higher-dimensional branes. In dimension p, these are called p-branes. The word brane comes from "membrane", which is equivalent to a two-dimensional brane.


Branes are dynamical objects that can propagate through spacetime according to the rules of quantum mechanics. They have mass and can have other attributes such as charge. A p-brane sweeps out a (p+1)-dimensional volume in spacetime called its world volume. Physicists often study fields analogous to the electromagnetic field that exist within the world volume of a brane.


In string theory and related theories, D-branes are an important class of branes that arise when one considers open strings. As an open string propagates through spacetime, its endpoints are required to lie on a D-brane. The letter "D" in D-brane refers to the fact that we impose a certain mathematical condition on the system known as the Dirichlet boundary condition. The study of D-branes has led to important results, such as the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence, which has shed light on many problems in quantum field theory.


Branes are also frequently studied from a purely mathematical point of view, since they are related to subjects such as homological mirror symmetry and noncommutative geometry. Mathematically, branes may be represented as objects of certain categories, such as the derived category of coherent sheaves on a Calabi–Yau manifold, or the Fukaya category.


The cyclic multiverse has multiple branes (each a universe) that collided, causing Big Bangs. The universes bounce back and pass through time, until they are pulled back together and again collide, destroying the old contents and creating them anew.

The landscape multiverse relies on string theory's Calabi–Yau shapes. Quantum fluctuations drop the shapes to a lower energy level, creating a pocket with a different set of laws from the surrounding space.


The "cyclic multiverse" -- a theorized collection of universes, parallel in time, resulting from collisions between branes.


The quantum multiverse creates a new universe when a diversion in events occurs, as in the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics.


The "quantum multiverse" -- the vast ensemble of branching parallel universes suggested by the "many worlds" interpretation of quantum theory.


Hologram Evrenlere Yakalananlar

Hologram Multiverse Evrenlere Yakalananlar


The holographic multiverse is derived from the theory that the surface area of a space can simulate the volume of the region.


The "holographic multiverse" -- the observation, stemming from the "holographic principle" (see [Greene2011, pg. 238-273]), that our universe is mirrored by phenomena taking place on a distant bounding surface.


The simulated multiverse exists on complex computer systems that simulate entire universes.


The "simulated multiverse" -- a collection of universes that potentially are created as simulations running inside futuristic super-powerful computer systems.


Simulated reality is the hypothesis that reality could be simulated—for example by computer simulation—to a degree indistinguishable from "true" reality, and may in fact be such a simulation. It could contain conscious minds which may or may not be fully aware that they are living inside a simulation.


This is quite different from the current, technologically achievable concept of virtual reality. Virtual reality is easily distinguished from the experience of actuality; participants are never in doubt about the nature of what they experience. Simulated reality, by contrast, would be hard or impossible to separate from "true" reality.


There has been much debate over this topic, ranging from philosophical discourse to practical applications in computing.


The ultimate multiverse contains every mathematically possible universe under different laws of physics.


The "ultimate multiverse" -- the suggestion by Tegmark and others that every set of mathematical equations describing a possible universe is actually realized.


Cyclic theories
In several theories there is a series of infinite, self-sustaining cycles (for example: an eternity of Big Bang-Big crunches).


M Theory



A multiverse of a somewhat different kind has been envisaged within string theory and its higher-dimensional extension, M-theory. These theories require the presence of 10 or 11 spacetime dimensions respectively. The extra 6 or 7 dimensions may either be compactified on a very small scale, or our universe may simply be localized on a dynamical (3+1)-dimensional object, a D-brane. This opens up the possibility that there are other branes which could support "other universes". This is unlike the universes in the "quantum multiverse", but both concepts can operate at the same time.


Some scenarios postulate that our big bang was created, along with our universe, by the collision of two branes.


Black-hole cosmology
A black-hole cosmology is a cosmological model in which the observable universe is the interior of a black hole existing as one of possibly many inside a larger universe.


Spacetime dimensionality - Anthropic Principle

Anthropic principle - Spacetime dimensionality


Anthropic principle
The concept of other universes has been proposed to explain how our Universe appears to be fine-tuned for conscious life as we experience it. If there were a large (possibly infinite) number of universes, each with possibly different physical laws (or different fundamental physical constants), some of these universes, even if very few, would have the combination of laws and fundamental parameters that are suitable for the development of matter, astronomical structures, elemental diversity, stars, and planets that can exist long enough for life to emerge and evolve. The weak anthropic principle could then be applied to conclude that we (as conscious beings) would only exist in one of those few universes that happened to be finely tuned, permitting the existence of life with developed consciousness. Thus, while the probability might be extremely small that any particular universe would have the requisite conditions for life (as we understand life) to emerge and evolve, this does not require intelligent design per the teleological argument as the only explanation for the conditions in the Universe that promote our existence in it.


CMB Timeline The universe's timeline, from inflation to the WMAP

CMB Time line The universe's time line, from inflation to the WMAP


Big Bang Noise A comparison of the sensitivity of WMAP with COBE and Penzias and Wilson's telescope

A comparison of the sensitivity of WMAP with COBE and Penzias and Wilson's telescope. Simulated data.


Search for evidence
Around 2010, scientists such as Stephen M. Feeney analyzed Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data and claimed to find preliminary evidence suggesting that our universe collided with other (parallel) universes in the distant past. Unreliable source? However, a more thorough analysis of data from the WMAP and from the Planck satellite, which has a resolution 3 times higher than WMAP, failed to find any statistically significant evidence of such a bubble universe collision. In addition, there is no evidence of any gravitational pull of other universes on ours.



Paul Davies Physicist and Comsologist

Paul Davies Physicist and Cosmologist


Non-scientific claims
In his 2003 NY Times opinion piece, A Brief History of the Multiverse, author and cosmologist, Paul Davies, offers a variety of arguments that multiverse theories are non-scientific :


The multiverse hypothesis is a source of disagreement within the physics community. Physicists disagree about whether the multiverse exists, and whether the multiverse is a proper subject of scientific inquiry.


Supporters of one of the multiverse hypotheses include Stephen Hawking, Steven Weinberg, Brian Greene, Max Tegmark, and Alex Vilenkin. In contrast, critics such as David Gross, Paul Steinhardt, and Paul Davies have argued that the multiverse question is philosophical rather than scientific, or even that the multiverse hypothesis is harmful or pseudoscientific.


For a start, how is the existence of the other universes to be tested? To be sure, all cosmologists accept that there are some regions of the universe that lie beyond the reach of our telescopes, but somewhere on the slippery slope between that and the idea that there are an infinite number of universes, credibility reaches a limit. As one slips down that slope, more and more must be accepted on faith, and less and less is open to scientific verification. Extreme multiverse explanations are therefore reminiscent of theological discussions.


Indeed, invoking an infinity of unseen universes to explain the unusual features of the one we do see is just as ad hoc as invoking an unseen Creator. The multiverse theory may be dressed up in scientific language, but in essence it requires the same leap of faith. Paul Davies, A Brief History of the Multiverse.


Taking cosmic inflation as a popular case in point, George Ellis, writing in August 2011, provides a balanced criticism of not only the science, but as he suggests, the scientific philosophy, by which multiverse theories are generally substantiated. He, like most cosmologists, accepts Tegmark's level I "domains", even though they lie far beyond the cosmological horizon. Likewise, the multiverse of cosmic inflation is said to exist very far away. It would be so far away, however, that it's very unlikely any evidence of an early interaction will be found.


He argues that for many theorists, the lack of empirical testability or falsifiability is not a major concern. “Many physicists who talk about the multiverse, especially advocates of the string landscape, do not care much about parallel universes per se. For them, objections to the multiverse as a concept are unimportant. Their theories live or die based on internal consistency and, one hopes, eventual laboratory testing.” Although he believes there's little hope that will ever be possible, he grants that the theories on which the speculation is based, are not without scientific merit. He concludes that multiverse theory is a “productive research program”:


As skeptical as I am, I think the contemplation of the multiverse is an excellent opportunity to reflect on the nature of science and on the ultimate nature of existence: why we are here… In looking at this concept, we need an open mind, though not too open. It is a delicate path to tread. Parallel universes may or may not exist; the case is unproved. We are going to have to live with that uncertainty. Nothing is wrong with scientifically based philosophical speculation, which is what multiverse proposals are. But we should name it for what it is.


George Ellis, Scientific American, Does the Multiverse Really Exist?


Occams Razor

Occam's Razor


Occam's razor

Proponents and critics disagree about how to apply Occam's razor. Critics argue that to postulate a practically infinite number of unobservable universes just to explain our own seems contrary to Occam's razor. In contrast, proponents argue that, in terms of Kolmogorov complexity, the proposed multiverse is simpler than a single idiosyncratic universe.

For example, multiverse proponent Max Tegmark argues:


An entire ensemble is often much simpler than one of its members. This principle can be stated more formally using the notion of algorithmic information content. The algorithmic information content in a number is, roughly speaking, the length of the shortest computer program that will produce that number as output. For example, consider the set of all integers. Which is simpler, the whole set or just one number? Naively, you might think that a single number is simpler, but the entire set can be generated by quite a trivial computer program, whereas a single number can be hugely long. Therefore, the whole set is actually simpler... (Similarly), the higher-level multiverses are simpler. Going from our universe to the Level I multiverse eliminates the need to specify initial conditions, upgrading to Level II eliminates the need to specify physical constants, and the Level IV multiverse eliminates the need to specify anything at all.... A common feature of all four multiverse levels is that the simplest and arguably most elegant theory involves parallel universes by default. To deny the existence of those universes, one needs to complicate the theory by adding experimentally unsupported processes and ad hoc postulates: finite space, wave function collapse and ontological asymmetry. Our judgment therefore comes down to which we find more wasteful and inelegant: many worlds or many words. Perhaps we will gradually get used to the weird ways of our cosmos and find its strangeness to be part of its charm. Max Tegmark, "Parallel universes. Not just a staple of science fiction, other universes are a direct implication of cosmological observations." Scientific American 2003 May;288(5):40–51


Princeton cosmologist Paul Steinhardt used the 2014 Annual Edge Question to voice his opposition to multiverse theorizing:


A pervasive idea in fundamental physics and cosmology that should be retired: the notion that we live in a multiverse in which the laws of physics and the properties of the cosmos vary randomly from one patch of space to another. According to this view, the laws and properties within our observable universe cannot be explained or predicted because they are set by chance. Different regions of space too distant to ever be observed have different laws and properties, according to this picture. Over the entire multiverse, there are infinitely many distinct patches. Among these patches, in the words of Alan Guth, "anything that can happen will happen—and it will happen infinitely many times". Hence, I refer to this concept as a Theory of Anything. Any observation or combination of observations is consistent with a Theory of Anything. No observation or combination of observations can disprove it. Proponents seem to revel in the fact that the Theory cannot be falsified. The rest of the scientific community should be up in arms since an unfalsifiable idea lies beyond the bounds of normal science. Yet, except for a few voices, there has been surprising complacency and, in some cases, grudging acceptance of a Theory of Anything as a logical possibility. The scientific journals are full of papers treating the Theory of Anything seriously.


What is going on. Paul Steinhardt, "Theories of Anything"


Steinhardt claims that multiverse theories have gained currency mostly because too much has been invested in theories that have failed, e.g. inflation or string theory. He tends to see in them an attempt to redefine the values of science to which he objects even more strongly:


A Theory of Anything is useless because it does not rule out any possibility and worthless because it submits to no do-or-die tests. (Many papers discuss potential observable consequences, but these are only possibilities, not certainties, so the Theory is never really put at risk.) Paul Steinhardt, "Theories of Anything"


David Lewis

David Lewis - Philosopher


Multiverse hypotheses in philosophy and logic

Modal realism
Possible worlds are a way of explaining probability, hypothetical statements and the like, and some philosophers such as David Lewis believe that all possible worlds exist, and are just as real as the actual world (a position known as modal realism).


Trans-world identity
A metaphysical issue that crops up in multiverse schema that posit infinite identical copies of any given universe is that of the notion that there can be identical objects in different possible worlds. According to the counterpart theory of David Lewis, the objects should be regarded as similar rather than identical.


The notion of transworld identity—‘identity across possible worlds’—is the notion that the same object exists in more than one possible world (with the actual world treated as one of the possible worlds). It therefore has its home in a ‘possible-worlds’ framework for analyzing, or at least paraphrasing, statements about what is possible or necessary.


The subject of transworld identity has been highly contentious, even among philosophers who accept the legitimacy of talk of possible worlds. Opinions range from the view that the notion of an identity that holds between objects in distinct possible worlds is so problematic as to be unacceptable, to the view that the notion is utterly innocuous, and no more problematic than the uncontroversial claim that individuals could have existed with somewhat different properties. Matters are complicated by the fact that an important rival to ‘transworld identity’ has been proposed: David Lewis's counterpart theory, which replaces the claim that an individual exists in more than one possible world with the claim that although each individual exists in one world only, it has counterparts in other worlds, where the counterpart relation (based on similarity) does not have the logic of identity. Thus much discussion in this area has concerned the comparative merits of the transworld identity and counterpart-theoretic accounts as interpretations, within a possible-worlds framework, of statements of what is possible and necessary for particular individuals.


David Lewis, “Counterparts and Double Lives

Modal Realism:
“When I profess realism about possible worlds, I mean to be taken literally. Possible worlds are what they are, and not some other thing. If asked what sort of thing they are, I cannot give the kind of reply my questioner probably expects: that is, a proposal to reduce possible worlds to something else.I can only ask him to admit that he knows what sort of thing our actual world is, and then explain that possible worlds are more things of that sort, differing not in kind but only in what goes on at them.” (from Counterfactuals, p. 73)

Some fundamental theses of modal realism

(1)Possible worlds exist.
(2)Possible worlds are just like this one.
(3)Possible worlds are irreducible.
(4)‘Actual’ is an indexical expression.
(5)Possible worlds are unified by the spatiotemporal relations that its members have to each other.
(6)Possible worlds are causally isolated from one another.


In philosophy, specifically in the area of modal metaphysics, counterpart theory is an alternative to standard (Kripkean) possible-worlds semantics for interpreting quantified modal logic. Counterpart theory still presupposes possible worlds, but differs in certain important respects from the Kripkean view. The form of the theory most commonly cited was developed by David Lewis, first in a paper and later in his book On The Plurality of Worlds.


Saul Kripke Philosopher circa 1980's

Saul Kripke Philosopher circa 1980's


Kripke has made influential and original contributions to logic, especially modal logic. His work has profoundly influenced analytic philosophy, with his principal contribution being a semantics for modal logic, involving possible worlds as described in a system now called Kripke semantics. Another of his most important contributions is his argument that necessity is a 'metaphysical' notion, which should be separated from the epistemic notion of a priori, and that there are necessary truths which are a posteriori truths, such as "Water is H2O." He has also contributed an original reading of Wittgenstein, referred to as "Kripkenstein." His most famous work is Naming and Necessity (1980).

Ersatz Modal Realism

Instead of an incredible plurality of concrete worlds, we can have one world only, and countless abstract entities representing ways that this world might have been. (P.O.W., 136)

Possible worlds are sets of possible individuals. One world/one set is actual (or actualized by God).

Linguistic ersatzism: constructs its ersatz worlds as maximal consistent sets of sentences (P.O.W., 142)

Pictorial ersatzism: presents possible worlds as pictures of individuals.

Magical ersatzism: worlds have no relevant inner structure; they are themselves simples (P.O.W., 174)


*Ersatz - being a usually artificial and inferior substitute or imitation.


Fictional realism
The view that because fictions exist, fictional characters exist as well. There are fictional entities, in the same sense in which, setting aside philosophical disputes, there are people, Mondays, numbers and planets.


Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein


There is only one possible universe

It is sometimes argued that the observed universe is the unique possible universe, so that talk of "other" universes is ipso facto meaningless. Einstein raised this possibility when he wondered whether the universe could have been otherwise, or non-existent altogether. This possibility is also expressed in theories such as determinism and chaos theory. The hope is sometimes expressed that once a grand unified theory of everything is achieved, it will turn out to have a unique solution corresponding to the observed universe.


Summing up:

The "multiverse" is a term for the totality of physical reality, extending beyond the observable universe to a larger realm that encompasses other regions. It is curious that the term "multiverse" was not actually invented by modern physicists, astronomers or cosmologists, but instead was coined by American philosopher William James in 1896 [James1896, pg. 43], although his usage of the term was quite different than that of modern scientists.

Proposed levels of the multiverse:


Various contemporary authors use different terms and distinguish different realms. Physicist-cosmologist Paul Davies frames the discussion with these terms [Davies2007, pg. 31-32]:


Observed universe: This is all of space and its contents out as far as our instruments can currently probe.


Observable universe: Everything within the "horizon" of what is visible from our vantage point looking around 13.7 billion light years (since the big bang was 13.7 billion years ago). This nearly coincides with the observed universe.


Entire universe: This includes all space within and beyond our horizon and its contents.

Pocket universe: This is the region of space out as far as it resembles the observable universe today, recognizing that there may be regions (other pocket universes) with different laws than those that prevail in our universe.


Multiverse: This is the collection of all pocket universes (possibly infinite in number) plus "gaps" between them. Some authors, such as Susskind, prefer the term "megaverse."


Max Tegmark, in his 2014 book Our Mathematical Universe: My Quest for the Ultimate Nature of Reality, classifies the multiverse as follows [Tegmark2014]:

Level I: The universe external to ours, as a result of the inflation at the big bang.

Level II: Pocket universes, the result of "eternal inflation."

Level III: The bifurcating ensemble of universes, as a consequence of the "many worlds" formulation of quantum mechanics.

Level IV: Tegmark's own notion of all mathematical structures, which he hypothesizes actually exist and constitute the irreducible "stuff" of existence.


Brian Greene, in his 2011 book The Hidden Reality, sums up the numerous proposals for a multiverse as follows (including some that are not mentioned above) [Greene2011, pg. 309]:


The "quilted multiverse" -- Greene's name for Davies' collection of "pocket universes".


The "inflationary multiverse" -- Greene's name for the Guth-Linde collection of universes spawned in the inflation era of the very early universe.


The "brane multiverse" -- a higher-dimensional expanse populated by other "branes" as defined in string theory.


The "cyclic multiverse" -- a theorized collection of universes, parallel in time, resulting from collisions between branes.


The "landscape multiverse" -- the collection of universes resulting from the huge number of distinct possible shapes (topology) of the universe's fundamental structure -- see above.


The "quantum multiverse" -- the vast ensemble of branching parallel universes suggested by the "many worlds" interpretation of quantum theory.


The "holographic multiverse" -- the observation, stemming from the "holographic principle" (see [Greene2011, pg. 238-273]), that our universe is mirrored by phenomena taking place on a distant bounding surface.


The "simulated multiverse" -- a collection of universes that potentially are created as simulations running inside futuristic super-powerful computer systems.


The "ultimate multiverse" -- the suggestion by Tegmark and others that every set of mathematical equations describing a possible universe is actually realized.


Greene concludes his analysis not by endorsing any (much less all) of these lines of thought, but by simply urging his readers to recognize that ultimate reality might be much broader and more exotic than we have heretofore imagined: "It's only through the rational pursuit of theories, even those that whisk us into strange and unfamiliar domains, that we stand a chance of revealing the expanse of reality." [Greene2011, pg. 322].


So is the concept of a parallel universe fact or fiction?


I will leave you to draw your own conclusion on what is your 'Quantum Reality'!


I hope you found this article to be a stimulating and thought provoking read?!


Bright Positive Blessings,

Kaz XX


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